Senin, 02 April 2012

rumus umum bahasa inggris


1. Present Tense (Waktu Sekarang)
a. Simple Present Tense (Waktu Sekarang Sederhana)
  1. Subject + To Be (am / are / is) + …
  2. Subject + Verb + … 
Rumus apabila kalimat terdapat kata kerja:
S + V1 + O + Adv (+)
  • General Truth
Contoh : Api itu panas, es itu dingin
  • Daily aktifity
Kegiatan sehari hari, Contoh : saya sarapan tiap pagi
Does/do + S + V1 + O + Adv (?)
S + Does/do + not + v1 + O + Adv (-)
Rumus apabila kalimat tidak terdapat kata kerja :
S + Tobe + Adj/Noun/Adv (+)
Tobe + S + Adj/Noun/Adv (?)
S + Tobe + not + Adj/Nount/Adv (-)
Contoh kalimat :
(+) She is a new people here.
(+) He plays football every morning
(-) She isn’t a new people here.
(-) He not playing football every morning.
(?) Is she a new people here?
(?) How playing football every morning?
b. Present Continuous  Tense (Waktu Berlangsung Sekarang)
Menerangkan suatu perbuatan yabg sedang berlangsungpada waktu sekarang.
Subject + To Be (am / is / are) +Verb I + ING …
 Rumus :  
 
 Positif: S + Tobe + Ving
Negatif: S + Tobe+ Not+ Ving
Tanya:   Tobe + S + Ving
        
dalam kalimat :
(+) They are studying English now.
(+) He is playing badminton now
(-) They aren’t studying English now.
(-) He isn’t playing badminton now.
(?) Is he playing badminton now.
(?) Is she going to market now?

c. Present Perfect Tense (Waktu Sempurna Sekarang)
Subject + Have / Has +Verb II (Ing) + …
Rumus :   
 
Positif: S + have/has + V3
Negatif: S + have/sas Not + V3
Tanya:   Have/has + S + V3                                                                                                       
Contoh :
(+) I have gone.
(+) They have done
(-) I haven’t gone.
(-)They haven’t done.
(?) Have I gone ?
(?) Have they done ?

d. Present Perfect Continuous Tense (Waktu Berlangsung Sempurna Sekarang)
Subject + Have / Has +Verb II (Ing) + …
Rumus : 
 
Positif: S + have/has + been + Ving
Negatif: S + have/has + not + been + Ving
Tanya: Have/has + S + been + Ving
Contoh :
(+) She has been going to Malang since evening.
(+) We have been riding a horse for three days
(-) She hasn’t been going to Malang since evening.
(-) We haven’t been riding a horse for three days.
(?) Has she been going to Malang ?
(?) Have He been riding a horse for three days ?



2. Past Tense (Waktu Lampau)
a. Simple Past Tense (Waktu Lampau Sederhana)
  1. Subject + To Be (was / were) + …
  2. Subject + Verb II + …
Rumus : 
 
 Positif: S + V2
Negatif: S + did not + V1
Tanya: Did + S + V1
Contoh :
(+) I saw a good film last night
(+) He came here last month
(-) I saw not a good film last night
(-) He came not  last month
(?) Saw I a good film last night
(?) Came He here last month
Subject + To Be (was / were) + Verb I (Ing) + …
  
b. Past Continuous Tense (Waktu Berlangsung Lampau)


Rumus :
 
 Positif: S + was/were + Ving
Negatif: S + was/were + NOT + Ving
Tanya: Was/Were + S + Ving
Contoh :
(+) He was watching television all afternoon last week
(+) They were talking about sport when I met him
(-)   He wasn’t watching television all afternoon last week
(-) They weren’t talking about sport when I met him
(?) Was He watching television all afternoon last week
(?) Were they talking about sport when I met him

c. Past Perfect Tense (Waktu Sempurna Lampau)
  1. Subject + Had + Been + …
  2. Subject + Had + Verb III + …
 Rumus : 
 
Positif: S + had + V3
Negatif: S + had + not + V3
Tanya: Had + S + V3
Contoh :
(+) When my brother arrived , I had painted my motor cycle
(+) The ship had left before I arrived
(-) When my brother arrived , I hadn’t painted my motor cycle
(-) The ship hadn’t left before I arrived
(?) Had I my motor cycle , when my brother arrived ?
(?) Had the ship left before I arrived?

d. Past Perfect Continuous Tense (Waktu Berlangsung Sempurna Lampau)
Subject + Had + Been + Verb I (Ing) + …
Rumus :      
 
Positif: S + had + been + Ving
Negatif: S + had + not + been + Ving
Tanya:  Had + S + been + Ving                                                                                
Contoh :
(+) They had been living there for two month
(+) When they washed my drees , your father had been playing badminton
(-) They hadn’t been living there for two month
(-) When they washed my dress , your father hadn’t been playing badminton
(?) Had they been living there for two month?
      (?) When they washed my dress , had your father been playing badminton ?


3. Future Tense (Akan Datang)
a. Simple Future Tense (Waktu Akan Datang Sederhana)
  1. Subject Shall / Will + Be + …
  2. Subject + Shall / Will + Verb + …

Rumus : 
 
Positif: S + will + V1
Negatif: S + will + not + V1
Tanya: Will + S + V1

Contoh :
(+) I will visit to yogyakarta tomorrow.
(+) he will met girl friend by seven o’clock
(?) Will he go to America next month?
(+) President shall at Nederland the day after tomorrow.
(-) President shall not at Nederland the day after tomorrow.
(?) Shall President at Nederland the day after tomorrow?

b. Future Continuous Tense (Waktu Berlangsung Akan Datang)
Subject + Shall / Will + Be + Verb (Ing) + …
Rumus :      
 
  Positif: S + will + be + Ving
Negatif: S + will not + be + Ving
Tanya: Will + S + be + Ving
                                                                                        
Contoh :
(+) I will be writing a comic.
(+) I will be studying tomorrow night.
(-) I will not writing a comic.
(-) I will not be studying tomorrow night.
(?)  Will I be writing a comic ?
(?) Will I be studying tomorrow night ?

c. Future Perfect Tense (Waktu Sempurna Akan Datang)
  1. Subject + Shall / Will + Have + Been + …
  2. Subject + Shall / Will + Have + Verb II + …
Rumus :    
 
Positif: S + will + have + V3
Negatif: S + will + not + have + V3
Tanya: Will + S + have + V3
                                                                                                   
Contoh :
(+) Bily will have done his work by the end of this week.
(+) By next week I shall have read this book.
(-) Bily will haven’t done his work by the end of this week.
(-) By next week I shall haven’t read this book.
(?) Will Billy have done his work by the end of this week ?
(?) Shall I have read this book by next week ?

d. Future Perfect Continuous Tense (Waktu Berlangsung Sempurna Akan Datang)
Subject + Shall / Will + Have + Been + Verb (Ing) + …
 Rumus :    
 
Positif: S + will + have + been + Ving
Negatif: S + will + not + have + been + Ving
Tanya: Will + S + have + been + Ving
                                                                                  
Contoh :
(+) I will have been reading a news paper.
(+) He will have been listening music.
(-) I will haven’t  been reading a news paper.
(-) He will haven’t listening a music.
(?) Will I have been riding a news paper ?
(?) Will He have listening a music ?

4. Past Future Tense (Akan Datang Di Waktu Lampau)
a. Past Future Tense (Waktu Akan Datang Di Waktu Lampau)
  1. Subject + Should / Would + Have + Been + …
  2. Subject + Should / Would + Have + Verb III + …
 Rumus : 
 
Positif: S + would + have + V3
Negatif: S + would + not + have + V3
Tanya: Would + S + have + V3


Contoh :
(+) He would come if you invited him.
(+) They would buy a home the previous day.
(-) He wouldn’t come if invited him.
(-) They wouldn’t buy a home the previous day.
(?)  Would He come if invited him ?
(?) Would they buy a home the previous day ?

b. Past Future Continuous Tense (Waktu Akan Sedang Terjadi Diwaktu Lampau)
Subject + Shoul / Would + Be : Verb (Ing) + …
 Rumus :
Positif: S + would + be + Ving
Negatif: S + would + not + be + Ving
Tanya: Would + S + be + Ving

Contoh :
(+) I should be swimming at this time the following day.
(+) I shall be sliping at 10 o’clock tomorrow.
(-) I shouldn’t  be swimming at this time the following day.
(-) I shalln’t be sleeping at 10 o’clock tomorrow.
(?) Shall I be swimming at this time the following day ?
(?) Shall I be sleeping at10 o’clock tomorrow ?

c. Past Future Perfect Tense (Waktu Akan Sudah Selesai Di Waktu Lampau)
  1. Subject + Should / Would + Have + Been + …
  2. Subject + Should / Would + Have + Verb III + …
Rumus :
 Positif: S + would + have + V3
Negatif: S + would + not + have + V3
Tanya: Would + S + have + V3

Contoh :
(+) He would have graduated if he had studies hard.
(+) Nonok will have studied moth by the end of this week.
(-) He wouldn’t have gone if he had met his darling
(-) Nonok will have not studied month by the end of this week
(?) Would He have gone if he had met his darling ?
(?) Will Nonok have studied month by the end of this week ?

d. Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense
(Waktu Yang Sudah Sedang Berlangsung Pada Waktu Lampau)
Subject + Should / Would + Have + Been + Verb (Ing) + …

Rumus :
 
 Positif: S + would + have + been + Ving
Negatif: S + would + not + have + been + Ving
Tanya: Would + S + have + been + Ving


Contoh :
Rianawati would have been speaking English for two years
(+) Mrs. Anisa Munif would have been walking here for seventeen years
(+) Rianawati would have been speaking English for two years
(-) Mrs. Anisa Munif wouldn’t have been walking here for seventeen year
(-) Rianawati wouldn’t have been speaking English for two years
(?) Would Mrs. Anisa Munif have been walking here for seventeen years?
(?) Would Rianawati have been speaking English for two years?

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